在经济发展与疫情防控"两翼并行"的常态下，如何从本次疫情中吸取经验与教训，缓解类似突发公共事件给城市发展带来的影响与冲击，复旦大学空间规划研究中心联合复旦规划建筑设计研究院、上海空间规划设计研究院、城乡规划杂志社共同举办主题为“常态化疫情防控与韧性城市建设”的直播访谈活动，邀请沈振江、熊鲁霞、唐亚林、孙志强、Tim Stonor 五位专家学者，以韧性城市理念和新发传染病疫情为切入点，通过分析疫情防控对当前城市规划建设的挑战，探讨新时期城市空间规划治理的思路和方案，有针对性地提出建设韧性城市、加强疫情防控的建议。此次活动特邀搜狐城市、凤凰网、上海热线作为媒体支持。
As a member of the steering committee of the first international standard for smart Cities ISO37106, how do you think the planning, design and construction industry can help cities have a smart coexistence with the virus?What kind of smart standards should cities adopt to cope with the epidemic and how can these be achieved?
In thinking about standards we need to consider two key dimensions: inputs standards and outputs standards. Let’s start with the output standards. Or, in other words, the performance standards. What are we expecting cities to do?
And the first thing we need cities to do is to keep us safe and of course the Coronavirus puts this aspect of urban performance into sharp focus. But safety has always been a concern for as long as we’ve had cities: safety against fire, against flood and of course against attack.
Now let’s consider the input standards – the design standards - to address safety. Whereas fire, flooding and attack have typically required physical measures: brick replacing timber construction after the Great Fire of London, for example, and flood defences protecting low-lying places from the sea, the Coronavirus places a requirement on spatial measures: on ventilation standards, which may lead to better mechanical air filtration but may equally equate to the opening up of architectural facades, from windows to entire ground floor frontages, thus blurring the relationship between public and private space. I think this offers exciting opportunities for designers.
Another spatial input factor is street connectivity, which is of course measured by Space Syntax tools. Spatial connectivity matters because it influences the way we move: whether, for example, we choose healthier options such as walking and cycling. The healthier we are the better we can defend ourselves against viral attack.
另一个空间输入要素是街道连通性，这是通过 Space Syntax 工具来衡量的。空间连通性很重要，因为它会影响我们的出行方式：例如，我们是否有更健康的选择，比如步行和骑车。人类越健康就越能抵御病毒攻击。
And when it comes to standards, this is something we are working on at Space Syntax: for example, minimum levels of spatial connectivity so that people are given the opportunity to walk and cycle. They may not always choose to do so but, if those minimum levels are not there they have no choice and instead have to drive.
当谈到标准时，这是我们在 Space Syntax 中正在努力的事情：例如，空间贯通的最低标准是人们可以通过步行和骑自行车到达。但如果没有这这样的可达性，大家别无选择，只能开车。
Of course making cities safe is not the only performance requirement of cities. We also need to make cities convivial: thriving with frequent informal, social contacts between people.
And the way we’ve learned to make this happen is first by slowing down to walking speed and then by mixing land uses such that everyday destinations are closer to home. By, as far as possible, removing the dull, daily commute that confines people to antisocial and unhealthy sedentary behaviours.
In the same way that we can measure spatial connectivity, so we can measure the degree to which people are close to each other and to other everyday land uses and are therefore likely to walk more. Indeed we’ve created the Walkability Index to provide a tool for urban planners to check current levels of walkability and measure proposed levels in future plans.
By studying towns and cities across the world we’re learning about the levels of land use mix and spatial connectivity that make the difference between a community that walks more, or walks less, and this means we can set standards that need to be achieved in new designs.
Now you may think that surely we need less social contact because of the Coronavirus, not more. But this is when we need to remember the fundamental performance of cities, which is to generate social and economic transactions that lead to new ideas and new inventions that help us solve the greatest problems of our time, that help us to create great works of art, that attract the most ambitious and skilled people and that nurture our cultures.
As vaccinations and other measures help reduce the risk of Coronavirus infection, we will need our cities to be more convivial than they have ever been. This has always been the case: after fires, floods and attacks of all kinds, we keep building cities in order to connect people together, because we recognise the power of connected places. What new technologies - such as those we’re creating at Space Syntax - can do is to lock in the performance standards that drive the movement and interaction patterns that foster the processes of invention and innovation that make cities the greatest inventions of humanity.
由于疫苗接种和其他措施有助于降低感染冠状病毒的风险，我们将需要我们的城市比以往任何时候都更加团结。向来如此：在火灾、洪水和各种袭击之后，我们继续建设城市以将人们联系在一起，我们感受到了相互合作的力量。比如我们在 Space Syntax 创造的新技术，可以做的是锁定驱动运动和交互模式的标准，从而促进发明和创新过程，使城市成为人类最伟大的发明。
You talked about Space Syntax’s approach being "Science-based and human-focused." There are many aspects to urban development alongside ‘smart city’ technologies. With reference to a metropolis like Shanghai, could you share some of your knowledge & experience on advanced cities worldwide?
您谈到 Space Syntax 的方法是“以科学为基础，以人为本”。除了“智慧城市”技术之外，城市发展还有很多方面。对于上海这样的大都市，您能分享一些您对全球先进城市的了解和经验吗？
I must mention trees, not least because the tree-lined streets of Shanghai have been an inspiration to me ever since I saw them many years ago. Trees are not only beautiful to look at but the shade they create makes it much more likely that people will choose to walk in the cooler air beneath them. A further benefit of trees is that they sequester carbon. And they provide home and shelter to many lifeforms that increases the biodiversity of cities.
And so our plans for new cities as well as for the improvement of existing cities always look to preserve or to create tree-lines avenues.
And in a similar manner we are increasingly providing shade in the form of canopies and other architectural devices.
A further feature of forward-thinking cities is that they are increasingly looking to adapt, to re-purpose and to restore their existing fabric of buildings rather than simply to keep growing. Because by refurbishing their existing building stocks, cities can avoid the carbon intensive exercise of demolition and reconstruction and instead they can retain the embodied carbon of existing buildings as far as possible.
In our masterplan for Nur-Sultan, the capital city of Kazakhstan, we persuaded the city leaders to improve and to intensify the existing city fabric before growing into the surrounding natural landscape.
And one of the most important characteristics of great cities is the way in which they mix land uses so that people can easily access everyday needs whether that’s work, shops, schools, healthcare and other friends. Gone are the days of land use zoning. No more suburban shopping centres surrounded by great seas of car parks, or office centres which can only be reached by private vehicles. Instead, we are designing great new streets with more offices, shops and other commercial uses on them, and then side streets where people live, all interspersed with parks and public spaces. Joined up by street networks with enough connectivity to make it easy to walk or cycle directly from A to B.
And of course this is the classic formula of great cities, from ancient Rome to historic Shanghai. The future is, in some ways at least, a return to the best ways of the past.
Finally, let me mention speed. Great cities are slow cities and great leaders are leading the transformation of their cities away from speeding vehicles and towards slow-speed walking and cycling - with high speed public transport below ground as subways or above ground as monorails.
Slow, shaded, connected and mixed use: these are the characteristics of the low carbon future city – that I believe are popular with citizens as well as with city leaders.